GREEN UP OUR PLANET

ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES AND INFORMATION



THE DRAKE EQUATION

THE EQUATION FOR CALCULATING THE NUMBER OF CIVILIZATIONS IN OUR GALAXY WITH WHICH COMMUNICATION MIGHT BE POSSIBLE.

I WONDER IF THERE ANY OTHER PLANETS OUT THERE IN THE SAME STATE AS OURS.
LETS HOPE WE ARE THE ONLY STUPID RACE OUT THERE.

The Drake equation states that:
N = N* fp ne fl fi fc fL
where:
N is the number of civilizations in our galaxy with which communication might be possible;
and R* is the average rate of star formation in our galaxy
fp is the fraction of those stars that have planets
ne is the average number of planets that can potentially support life per star that has planets
fℓ is the fraction of the above that actually go on to develop life at some point
fi is the fraction of the above that actually go on to develop intelligent life
fc is the fraction of civilizations that develop a technology that releases detectable signs of their existence into space
L is the length of time such civilizations release detectable signals into space.

ONE SET OF NUMBERS INPUT INTO THE EQUATION


TRY THE EQUATION WITH YOUR OWN NUMBERS
http://www.activemind.com/Mysterious/Topics/SETI/drake_equation.html








SPACE JUNK
Approximately 17,000 objects larger than 10 cm are known to exist. The estimated population of particles between 1 and 10 cm in diameter is greater than 200,000. The number of particles smaller than 1 cm probably exceeds tens of millions.

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NASA Aims to Keep Moon's Skies Junk-Free
http://www.space.com/aol/081028-st-lunar-orbit-junk.html



Shocking Space Debris Images


space-junk.jpg

The German newspaper Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung (FAZ, German only) today published an article on space junk. The shocking image is an eye opener. Humankind continues to repeat the mistake of strewing waste into common spaces (no pun intended) without a thought to the consequences, leaving costs we don't want to pay today for the future generations. The FAS article spurred our curiosity, leading us to find even more spectacular video and potential solutions to the problem (overleaf).

The ESA Space Debris Accumulation video depicts the tragic build up of space debris from 1957 through 2000. According to ESA's resident space debris expert, Walter Flury, the 10,000 pieces of space litter catalogued at the end of 2003 break into the following categories:

  • 41% -- miscellaneous fragments

  • 22% -- old spacecraft

  • 13% -- mission related objects

  • 7% -- operational spacecraft

  • 7% -- rocket bodies
Doing the math, that is 93% pure junk and only 7% useful satellites circling the earth. More disturbing, 50,000 uncatalogued objects larger than 1 cm (the largest size which modern shielding can likely deflect) are estimated to be spinning through space at hypervelocities.

Real Damage from Space Debris

space debris damage to hubble high gain antenna panel

So what, you say? There is a lot of space in Space...the images probably make it appear worse than it really is. Statistically, destructive collisions with operational satellites are predicted on average once every ten years. Nonetheless, as the image above shows, the risk of damage is real. This hole over 1 cm in diameter penetrates the Hubble high gain antenna dish (the unit continued working in spite of the damage). The windows on the Space Shuttle have been replaced 80 times due to impacts with objects of less than 1 mm. And costly systems to track and issue daily emails warning of potential impacts must be maintained. The future impacts must also be considered. Space debris would be a severe hindrance to space-based solar projects. Last, but not least, there is the risk of space junk raining down on us: space junk hitting an Oklahoma woman is one of Space.com's top ten most memorable pieces of space junk .

Graveyards in Space

So what can be done? Guidelines do exist, published by the Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee (IADC). The guidelines limit creation of debris in normal operations, and promote "disposal" either by deorbiting junk back towards earth, where it usually burns up in the atmosphere, or by putting space junk into "graveyard" orbits above the commercially important low-Earth and geostationary orbit zones. But more needs to be done. Some experts advocate for regulations. Live Science takes it a step farther, speculating on giant NERF balls, space lasers and cosmic collection vehicles among other imaginative ways to tackle the growing problem.


Via ::Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung and European Space Agency

FROM TREEHUGGER.COM   http://www.treehugger.com/files/2008/04/shocking-space-debris-images.php





Lunar Leftovers: How the Moon Became a Trash Can

JUNK ON THE MOON
SINCE 1959

A MORE COMPLETE LIST HERE
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_man-made_objects_on_the_Moon





MARS IS NEXT IN LINE


FOR OUR GARBAGE DISPOSAL


VIKING 1 JULY 26, 1976




VIKING I HEAT SHEILD





VIKING II
LANDED SEPT 3, 1976


OPPORTUNITY ROVER LANDER JAN 3, 2004



OPPORTUNITY LANDING GEAR




SPIRIT LANDER
JAN 24, 1976


PHOENIX LANDER
MAY 25, 2008

PLUS DO NOT FORGET ABOUT THE 2 MARS ROVERS
SPIRIT AND OPPORTUNITY STILL CHUGGING AWAY
THAT IS JUST ABOUT AS MUCH JUNK AS ON THE MOON.
A COMPLETE LIST HERE
http://www.space.com/missionlaunches/dead-mars-spacecraft-100414.html